There are still a number of barriers that put children and families off applying for, and taking up, free school meals. Georgina Burt from Children North East advises on how schools can remove some of these barriers
This is an edited version of an article that originally appeared on Headteacher Update
Free school meals (FSMs) are a crucial form of support for children and families experiencing poverty and research suggests that the number of children eligible is continuing to increase. At the same time, a recent report from Child Poverty Action Group, the North East Child Poverty Commission, and Children North East (2021) warns that, across the North East, only 89% of eligible pupils are registered for FSMs.
The research highlighted that some families simply do not know they are eligible, while others are afraid of stigma around claiming FSM, and it offered some important lessons for schools about the barriers that can be created by how FSMs are delivered.
Ultimately, it has never been more important that we get FSM provision right in our schools. At Children North East, we have been ‘poverty-proofing’ schools for 10 years and, as part of this process, we have spoken to thousands of pupils in hundreds of schools across the UK to understand what school is like for children who are growing up in poverty.
One of the most popular topics for children and young people to talk to our team about is food; as such, we want to offer some straight-forward and practical ways that schools can provide FSMs without unintentionally stigmatising children and young people.
Ensuring that FSM provision is handled with discretion so that children and young people are not made aware of who, among their peers, receive FSMs is central to all best practice around this topic. Many parents have shared their reluctance to check their child’s FSM eligibility because they have memories from their own time at school of being given a food voucher, or asked to stand in a separate queue in the dining hall, in full view of their peers. From our experience, children in schools are often still aware of which of their peers are in receipt of FSMs.
However, many schools are far more conscious of the impact this cam have, and have much better procedures in place to make sure that the FSM status of a child remains private. Some of these are:
- If you can, use cashless and online payment systems which are excellent ways of making payment processes look identical for those paying for school lunches and those receiving FSMs.
- Check carefully for any parts of the payment system which may inadvertently reveal this information – for example, some payment points show ‘FSM’ on the display and students tend to notice.
- Remind staff not to share with students any lists or registers that will divulge FSM status, such as when presenting on a smartboard.
Choice and autonomy
Processes around FSM provision and the way money is allocated to student accounts can limit the choice and autonomy that they have around food options at school. There are some really straight-forward ways that schools can ensure that young people in receipt of FSM have the same lunchtime experiences as their peers.
- Allow students to spend FSM money at breakfast and break time. Ensure that money is credited to their account in the morning so that it can be used at any point in the school day.
- Ensure that students on FSMs can purchase the full range of lunch options within their allowance – in some schools, lunch meal deal options still cost more than the allocated FSM allowance.
- Think about the quality and quantity of food available. While it is expected that older students will have bigger appetites than younger ones, this may not be the case. Ask students for feedback about the food choices available and what influences their food choices in school.
- Some schools will credit students’ accounts with FSM money for the full week, rather than giving a daily amount. This gives students more autonomy over how they spend it, allowing them to purchase larger meals or extra items on days when they may be hungrier, while also encouraging them to budget.
- Allow those on packed lunches and school dinners to sit together in the dining hall so that pupils on FSMs are not excluded from sitting with friends who have brought a packed lunch.
Outside of school
The most common way students know which of their class mates are in receipt of FSMs is when trips and visits outside of school are organised; on these days, FSMs are usually highly visible because they are provided in a brown or white paper bag. We have heard repeatedly from children and young people that they do not take the FSM lunch on trip days as it makes them stand out among their peers and often does not include food that they themselves have chosen. There are practical ways round this.
- Encourage all pupils, not just those eligible for FSMs, to take a school packed lunch on school trips – including staff. Some schools have made the lunch part of the trip by hosting a picnic. It is even better if this is started in primary schools with the universal infant FSM entitlement.
- Give pupils a choice on what is included in the school packed lunch, and ask all pupils to pre-order sandwiches.
- If staff are handing out lunches for school trips and visits ask them not to refer to them as the ‘free’ school lunch.
- If a trip is going to include a stop at a café or restaurant where pupils will be able to purchase their own lunches, consider how FSM pupils can take part.
- Explore options with businesses to provide lunches to FSM pupils when they are on work experience placements. Some businesses will provide lunch so that students do not miss out on this entitlement when they are outside of school.
Not even eligible…
We have called on the government to restore the previous FSM eligibility threshold (in place prior to April 2018), which included all families in receipt of universal credit, and extend FSMs to all those on equivalent benefits. This would provide FSMs to an additional 1.8m children across the UK.
Until this happens the challenge for schools is to understand and identify who these children and families are – and to think creatively about ways to offer support to those who sit just outside of the eligibility thresholds too.